Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Elefdar: Articles, Particles, and Conjunctions

Definite Articles

There are no indefinite articles in Elefdar; the indefinite article (“a” or “an”) is assumed, unless the definite article (“the”) is used. The definite article always declines to the same case and number as its connected noun. The definite articles are declined in the next table.


Single Plural
Nominative
da
-
dar
-er [-r]
Genitive
dai
-i
dair
-ir
Accusative,
Dative
da
-a [-]
darn
-ern [-rn]

By virtue of the nominal declensions, there is no specific word order prescribed in the Elefdar tongue when constructing phrases and sentences. Rather, the importance of certain words in the phrase or sentence is what determines their position. If the subject is of paramount importance, then it will be placed at the head of the phrase. But if the object is considered by the speaker to be more important, then it will be placed at the head. Generally, the subject and object will be separated at least by the verb, and possibly by other things like the indirect object – but this is not always the case. It is also possible to emphasize a word by placing it at the end of a sentence or phrase – thus, the verb could be placed at the end, following any combination of subject, object, and modifiers.

Particles

Elefdar uses a particle to negate a verb or phrase. The negation particle can be placed either at the beginning of a phrase, or just before the verb which is to be negated for extra emphasis.


Negation (“no”, “not”)
Particle
ni

Conjunctions

Conjunctions, like particles, are neither conjugated nor declined. Elefdar makes use of conjunctions to express a simple “this and that”, a simple “this or that”, an inclusive “this and/or that”, and a simple “(neither) this nor that”. The conjunctions are listed in the following table.


And Or And/Or Nor
Conjunction
hai
hu
hïu
hüin